Textile Waste Statistics 2019

14 Fashion Waste and Sustainability Facts Fact 1 : The apparel and footwear industries account for a combined estimate of 8% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions , and fashion is the third highest-polluting industry in the world. The Act instituted the 75% recycling goal, directed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to establish a reporting protocol and directed counties to report annually. If you want to donate your old shoes, Shoe Aid and Sal’s Shoes are a good place to start. Demos in booth #1113 illustrate application of Digimarc Platform in connected apparel. Schedule B 2019 - Browse. Hurley K-2 Teacher Jen Mohr worked with Hurley K-2 and 4th grade students and teachers to put together a “Hurley Saves the Earth” bilingual video. Sign up for trash collection reminders. For decades, the Indonesian government has permitted factories to flush untreated wastewater into canals leading to the river, as long as the effluent didn't contain. The fashion industry is responsible for 10% of humanity's carbon emissions. Less than 10% of plastic generation from the U. Mobilizing Support for the U. Employment in textile, clothing, leather and footwear manufacturing: 37,000. More waste facts * Every year the average Australian family produces enough rubbish to fill a three-bedroom house, producing about 2. In 2019, the nation is on track to throw away more than 35 billion pounds of textiles, according to the Council for Textile Recycling—almost double the number from 1999. The main source of textiles in municipal solid waste (MSW) is discarded clothing, although other smaller sources include furniture, carpets, tires, footwear, and other nondurable goods such as sheets and towels. 57% of people say they recycle their textiles with 41% of people saying. By Karin Lehnardt, Senior Writer. The world clothing and textile industry (clothing, textiles, footwear and luxury goods) reached almost $2,560 trillion in 2010. 8%) were recycled. According to the Council for Textile Recycling, charities overall sell only 20 percent of the clothing donated to them at their retail outlets. ISRI's 2019 Recycling Industry Yearbook is designed to not only provide the most up-to-date information and statistics about global scrap recycling, but also aims to provide readers with a clearer understanding of what the scrap industry actually is, how it has evolved and operates, and the scope of the tremendous economic and environmental benefits the industry generates for the planet. Bionic Yarn and Sea2See are just two suppliers that have been recycling and upcycling plastic from the ocean into new apparel. Liechtenstein in Figures 2019 Liechtenstein is the sixth smallest country in the world by area. And companies such as FabScrap, a textile reuse and recycling resource, aim to mitigate the issue of waste by streamlining material recycling processes for New York City-based businesses. 5% in 2018 – the fourth double-digit growth in a row. IFAI will host its first ever Women in Textiles Summit on March 6-8, 2019, at the Hyatt Regency Savannah in Savannah, Ga. More than 30% of unwanted clothes goes to landfil( When they could have been taken to the Charity shop which would make the communities a much heathier. One of the major impacts of the textile industry in Bandung, Indonesia is the quality of water of the Citarum river. Facts and stats about the growing issue of textiles waste. Agritourism, agricultural exports, healthy eating incentives and research are just a few of the other aspects of the state’s industry. Much of it comes from the cut-and-sew process, where the shape of a t-shirt is cut out of a square cloth, and the rest is discarded. Learn how to recycle just about anything in Napa. The Evrnu process creates very little negative environmental impact. 52% in terms of mass, from 93,300 tonnes in 2008 to 150,700 tonnes in 2016 (NEA, last updated 2016) but Singapore’s textile waste recycling rate remains stagnant at a low rate of 10% since 2003. Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures MSW Characterization Reports from Previous Years. 5% of the industry is dedicated to feed products or waste materials. This page contains the chapter-by-chapter listing of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and general notes. … Read More. General Description Last Updated: Thursday, 19 March 2020 08:13 The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is the worldwide leading textile processing standard for organic fibres, including ecological and social criteria, backed up by independent certification of the entire textile supply chain. Solid Waste Management: 2017 Administrative data provided by WasteServ Malta Ltd. Globally we produce 13 million tons of textile waste each year 95% of which could be reused or recycled. This represents […] AMMA: making textiles naturally Bleaching, printing and dyeing textiles is one of the most environmentally harmful stages of the garment production chain. 03 million tons of textile wastes were generated in the U. About 75% of our store management teams started as hourly associates, and last year, we promoted more than 215,000 people to jobs with greater responsibility and higher pay. The 2019 Conference is promising to be even bigger, with 500 business leaders and sustainability experts and consultants from large multinational companies including United Nations Global Compact, Lenzing, Arch & Hook, Sustainable Apparel Coalition, Bluesign, Textile Exchange and Forum for the Future expected to be. All the big charities I contacted. Glass Recycling Statistics Glass bottles and jars are 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or quality. Textile Waste Facts; Contact; Our Story. 1 2019 GSP Annual Product Review: 2018 Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations (CNLs), De Minimis Waivers, and Product Redesignations This document contains the lists referred to in a forthcoming notice published in the Federal Register entitled “2019. Recycling is collected every week on your designated collection day. The National Waste Policy provides a national framework for waste and resource recovery in Australia. 71 MB) Download 12. In partnership with Diabetes Canada, the city has launched a new program aimed at increasing recycling opportunities for textiles. Textile recycling reduces more greenhouse gasses than recycling glass. History Our mission Meet the team. East McIver Road, 1318 East. Recycling is Germany's contribution to the global battle for the environment, and the country has been very successful in its fight against growing garbage heaps. Paris, October 22, 2019 – Total has decided to double the production capacity of its affiliate Synova to meet growing market demand for high-performance recycled materials. Global Textile Market 2019-2023 The analyst recognizes the following companies as the key players in the global textile market: Arvind Limited, Asahi Kasei Corporation, Beaulieu International Group, Grasim, Lu Thai Textile Co. There also is data specific to clothing and footwear, and to towels, sheets and pillowcases. Ste 114-441 Gilbert, AZ 85297 480-988-2283. The BYBORRE approach is always a layered one, starting with the design, materials and engineering of their multi-layered fabrics. In the late 1800s, peddlers acted as early. These codes should be used after January 1, 2019. That is the same weight as 3. 2023 2019 2024 Source: European Bioplastics, nova-Institute (2018). Whatever isn’t sold in outlets moves on to Goodwill auctions, live events where attendees bid on bins of donated items without knowing precisely what’s inside. "At the macro level, the textile can rip apart and tear but at the micro level a lot of the fibres. Weather and equipment breakdowns may affect your pickup date. Among the largest single monthly exporters were Bertling, sending 20,000 tonnes to Sweden in November, and Biffa which sent 20,000 to the Netherlands in October. No copy paste is allowed and we will check plagiarism to confirm. One of the most widely quoted statistics - from the 2017 Ellen MacArthur Foundation report, A new textiles economy: Redesigning fashion’s future, is that the textile industry is responsible for 20 per cent of the world’s water pollution. The nation’s municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling and composting rate increased from 34. IFAI will host its first ever Women in Textiles Summit on March 6-8, 2019, at the Hyatt Regency Savannah in Savannah, Ga. WasteDataFlow is the web based system for municipal waste data reporting by UK local authorities to government. Statistics show that textile waste output has increased more than 61. economy and beyond. However, opportunities exist to reduce the impact of both categories during the use and disposal phases. The textile industry consumes a substantial amount of water in its manufacturing processes used mainly in the dyeing and finishing operations of the plants. Non_EU Exports EU Exports Statistical Value (£1000) Chap Goods Description Accessibility: General Creator: Date Issued: Identifier: Publisher: HM Revenue and Customs Status: Version 1. Questionnaire on Environment Statistics (waste section) – indicators 11. The value of unused clothing in wardrobes has been estimated at around £30 billion. It was sponsored by the Kenya Investment Climate Program II, which is generously funded by DFID and the Netherlands. Anaerobic digestion produces renewable energy from recycled food waste. Pro Europe - Participation Costs Overview 2019 Packaging materials on a biological basis Definition of packaging materials on a biological basis: Packaging materials on a biological basis (also ”biogenic packaging materials”, ”biogenic packaging”,. Zero Waste SG is a new not-for-profit and non-governmental organisation dedicated to help Singapore eliminate the concept of waste, and accelerate the shift. 45Kg/day per. Try and do your bit for the environment by taking cloth bags with you to the supermarket or using a 'bag for life. Textiles are the sixth most prevalent material type in the overall disposed waste stream and comprise 4 percent of landfilled waste. Knitted textiles as waste-free, stay-in-place, self-supporting formwork The forming system has been tested through a small-scale concrete bridge prototype, built using a custom-made, pre-stressed, knitted textile and bending-active hybrid structure that acted as a waste-free, stay-in-place, formwork which is also self-supporting as it is stiffened with the cement paste. It is an important milestone towards the future of global textile recycling systems necessary to enable circularity for fashion and textiles. India's textile and apparel exports stood at US$ 38. The Facts. Zero Waste SG is a new not-for-profit and non-governmental organisation dedicated to help Singapore eliminate the concept of waste, and accelerate the shift. 's March 2019 issue. 2019 waste statistics and overall recycling rates Top 10 waste streams disposed of Textile/leather Wood Horticultural Glass Ferrous metal % of total disposed (2019) 29. Textile recycling is about looking at how individual components in an old garment can be reused. Textile recycling is an amazing process. We make donating your textiles easy and convenient 24/7/365. Australians are the world's second largest consumers of textiles, buying on average 27 kilograms of new clothing and other textiles each year. But, as Tamsin Blanchard argues, we all have our part to play in making fashion truly circular. Wool Policy Report. Target groups: Environmental protection engineers, safety engineers, employees of environmental protection agencies. Statistics collected by the Council for Textile Recycling indicate that on a national basis this industry recycles approximately 10 lbs. Pure Waste Concept Store. And that. Recent statistics indicate that about 14 per cent of the (non-energy) raw mate-rials used in the German economy are recovered from waste. Textiles account for 10% of global carbon emissions. Key facts & figures on fashion and sustainability. Whatever isn't sold in outlets moves on to Goodwill auctions, live events where attendees bid on bins of donated items without knowing precisely what's inside. The production of raw materials is responsible for a large share of the environmental impact of the textile and clothing industry, not leastfrom growing crops for natural fibres. And that. It highlights opportunities and actions that can be taken across the sector in order to meet the SCAP targets. To speak with someone from the Town of Davie regarding garbage collection please call 954-797-1045. Market Size, Trade, Supply… UK Textile Industry 2019‑2023. There is still plenty. 4 billion pounds in 2019. All chemical inputs such as dyestuffs and auxiliaries used must meet certain environmental and toxicological criteria. 78 million tonnes of municipal solid waste were recovered in Hong Kong in 2018. 8 km at longest distance, 12. Every Christmas, it is estimated that we throw away over 108 million rolls of. The index of industrial production for sewerage, waste management and remediation activities increased by 0. The highlight of this month-long celebration is the Textile Stakeholders’ Conference dubbed as, TELA Vision 2020 Towards AmBisyon Natin 2040. The value of unused clothing in wardrobes has been estimated at around £30 billion. Each one takes 500 years to decompose. But what about textile waste? The latest statistics show that Australia ranks number two in the world for textile disposal and the average Australian buys about 27kg of textiles per head per year and, amazingly, disposes of about 23kg per person per year. 25 million tonnes were recycled. Residents can help divert millions of kilograms of waste from the landfill with new textile bins and a textile pickup program. Statistics play a vital role for all industries. The nation’s municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling and composting rate increased from 34. pollutants ,pollution and control in textile industry (tes 2011 : industrial pollution and control) submitted by: submitted to: madhu rani dr. Become a Member. Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, was established for the formulation of policy, planning, development, export promotion and regulation of the textile industry in India. 2 Smart textiles. While statistics for recycling are collected regularly, it often takes time for the most current numbers to be processed and assimilated for public consumption. Textile recycling is the process of recovering fiber, yarn or fabric and reprocessing the textile material into useful products. According to the EPA almost 13. 557 billion, up 24. According to the Facts and Figures Report, the country generated 262. Plastic waste is a growing issue, contaminating Earth’s oceans and poisoning marine life. The fashion industry is one of the major polluting industries in the world. Staffed County Drop-Off Stations. ATRS is a proud member of the SMART Association. cotton and textile sectors. More than 16 million tons of textile waste are generated each year in the United States alone, and the amount has doubled over the last 20. Every second, a whole garbage truck full of textiles is thrown out. generated roughly 5 billion pounds of textile waste in the public waste stream. The audit of the Accounts is ongoing and so the final audited Statement of Accounts is not currently available for publication. 5% of the land crop , uses 16% of pesticides and is the fourth most GMO (genetically modified) crop produced in the world. Her company uses blockchain technology to reduce textile production waste. Cotton according to a 2015. Industry Trends. What Have We Done For You Lately? A Whirlwind of CPIA & Industry Events. 4 billion pounds in 2019. To compare: in 2000 only 20 million people were employed in the industry. The average Canadian – tosses away about 37 kg of used clothing, per person, every year. To speak with someone from the Town of Davie regarding garbage collection please call 954-797-1045. Recent statistics indicate that about 18 billion pounds of plastic waste drains into the world's oceans each year from coastal areas alone. It is useful to break up textiles into non-clothing textiles and clothing as the latter represents a significant proportion of the household waste stream and distinct waste prevention initiatives have been developed to mitigate this. From 2017-2019, BPS Sustainability distributed new recycling equipment to BPS schools: 211 curbside recycling carts, 228 recycling barrels, and 4,154 classroom recycling bins across 102 schools. Waste management and remediation services - gross output 2009-2019 U. The textile industry is the one of the biggest industrial polluter of fresh water. 8 million tons were discarded. 4/22/19 - Save Our Plants & Animals by Recycling Textiles. Since the mid 1940's U. One city in Nova Scotia has just added curbside pick up for textiles, which will help divert even more waste from landfills. Textiles Textile recycling is a dynamic sector of the recycling industry that processes billions of pounds of cotton, wool, synthetic and synthetic-blend products each year. Clicking on a link will load the corresponding Adobe. Textile waste products are gathered from different sources and are then sorted and processed depending on their condition, composition, and resale value. 75 kilograms) of clothing per year. The manufacture and distribution of plastics are seen everywhere. The National Waste Policy guides continuing collaboration between all Australian governments, businesses and industries. The amount of discarded clothing tossed into landfills is projected to reach 35. The average lifetime of a cloth is approximately 3 years. The links below correspond to the various sections in the Table of Contents for the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. From revamped supply chains to recycling jeans and rethinking dyes, here’s what we discovered. This deserves to be repeated -- 85 times more! A ban on textiles in landfills opens up all kinds of possibilities for job creation, from collection, to sorting for wholesale, to the thriving second hand clothing sales business. NEWS Close to 2,000 Activities Organised in Support of the Year Towards Zero Waste. 143 - January 2019. They also estimate that the textile recycling industry recycles approximately 3. Clicking on a link will load the corresponding Adobe. This web page is a brief summary of textile material-specific data specific to MSW. WASTE WATER AND ITS TREATMENT IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY 1. According to the EPA almost 13. Used clothing and textile recycling. 6  The excessive amount of lead in e-waste. It is also both a life-saving miracle product and the scourge of the Earth. Customs statistics, 1 November 2011, import and export of mechanical industry $574. Data confirms this point. In 2019, about 7. BENTONVILLE, Ark. *Australian Bureau of Statistics reports 501,000 tonnes of leather and textiles sent to landfill in 2009-10. Excessive packing materials. Cotton accounts for 90% of all natural fibres used in the textiles industry. 58 pounds per person per day, including: 1. Salvage recycling programs, like that offered by Atlanta Recycling Company, find discarded clothing and other items a second home in the resale market. Credit: MeWa. Packaging is used to contain and protect foods and goods as they are transported and presented on shop shelves. Fashion is finally waking up to sustainability - but the lexicon. 11 Facts About E-Waste Welcome to DoSomething. Important Scrap Recycling Industry Statistics #1. European heat pump sales grew by 12. Recycling is an economic development tool as well as an environmental tool. Waste Packaging Statistics for Ireland. Rationale Justification for indicator selection. Recycling textiles. Widely viewed as a resource, these materials offer great potential for recycling and a real revenue generation opportunity for local authorities and waste management companies. And although they're often camouflaged fairly well, the negative issues that accompany landfills remain. FabricLink is The Textile Resource for education on fabrics, apparel, home furnishings, fabric care, fabric stain removal, fashion trends, performance fabrics, technical fabrics, and smart fabrics. Glass Recycling Statistics Glass bottles and jars are 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or quality. Residents can help divert millions of kilograms of waste from the landfill with new textile bins and a textile pickup program. It comprises four core priorities for immediate implementation and four transformational priorities for fundamental change in the longer term. The ragged resurgence of textile recycling Richard Kirkman, chief innovation and technology officer at Veolia UK & Ireland, takes a look at progress in delivering a circular economy for textiles. Although processes for textile. As a result, we generate more and more textile waste. Yes to reducing, reusing and recycling plastic bags that is! In 2020, New York City, (where I live), will transition into a plastic bag free world! I am very excited about this, and I have ideas to reduce, reuse, recycle plastic bags by creating temporary art installations using this maligned item from our daily lives…. Household clinical waste. Using industrial symbiosis, it aims to produce secondary raw materials from unwearable textile waste. Any textiles (old stockings, fabric ribbons) cannot be recycled. A group of researchers are trying to combat plastic waste by turning it into clean fuel through new chemical techniques. Industry: 5093—Scrap and Waste Materials Establishments primarily engaged in assembling, breaking up, sorting, and wholesale distribution of scrap and waste materials. Regarding pollution , the facts are quite appalling. Read facts and statistics about recycling. AN UNPARALLELED INDUSTRY PRESENCE With almost $2 billion in textile exports in 2017, North Carolina leads the nation in total value of textile exports. 34%;Exports of $291. Sorting plant (clothing, textiles and rags) - this is a general term for material in bulk, delivered to the factory of a larger textile collecting business which often exports used clothing and textiles, typically a large Sorting Plant or Depot. Kawartha Lakes Municipal Calendar. It includes data on: 1. Salem State encourages efforts to reduce waste and reuse items over recycling or placing in the trash. manufacturers have opened new facilities throughout the textile production chain, including recycling facilities to convert textile and other waste to new textile uses and resins. Our services are shaped to fit your needs. In 2015, food was the largest component added to landfills at about 22 percent. Textile waste around the world Image credit: Pixabay. Osage Mill Location: Click Here 04-04-2018 PRESS RELEASE: HISTORIC OSAGE MILL REDEVELOPMENT PROJECT Founding Textile Mill in Heart of Community Transforming to Mixed-Use Development Once established as the center of Bessemer City’s textile economy, Osage Mill located in the heart of downtown, is now getting the opportunity once again to breathe life back into the community. Interior Freight and Bottle Depot is Vernon BC's premier recycling center. The amount of discarded clothing tossed into landfills is projected to reach 35. Rewear: Garments or textiles in wearable condition. Recycling Summit 2019 has received a benevolent response from all over the world. 3% 153,904,197 155,706,116 -1. Then comes the big move: If clothes weren't able to sell in. All Chapters 01 Through 98. Why T-Shirts Can't Be Recycled into New T-Shirts: An in-depth look at the ins and outs of textile recycling; Textile Recycling Initiative Seeks to Save Fast Fashion: How (and why) retailers like H&M are getting into the textile recycling game; Circle Economy: A cooperative organization based in the Netherlands that promotes and encourages textile recycling and a circular. As far as waste is concerned, 85 percent of textiles are sent to landfills, i. There are different methods of waste collection. Modern landfill sites have gas controls (although some gas still escapes to the atmosphere). Check out IDEM’s Recycling Activity Reports which detail state recycling rates from year to year here. 1 million tons of textiles are thrown away every year. According to data published by Eurostat, Italy was the leading textile polluter among the EU countries, having accumulated approximately 466 thousand tonnes of textile waste in 2016. Company directory. The total generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2017 was 267. Links to internet trading sites. [16] "Rag and Bone" men would collect unwanted household items, including bones, to sell to merchants. { {/moreThanTen. Bureau of the Census. However, if the battery is part of the vehicle at the end of its life, there is no need to dispose of it separately. HONG KONG 2017 WASTE STATISTICS At a Glance Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 32%. RECENTLY UPDATED DATASETS. The Looptworks founders looked at this process and decided make a. Current status of textile reuse and recycling. COVID-19 Medical Waste Management. Instead of going on to become a new hotly desired outfit, as much as 13% of recycled textiles end up being downscaled into fibre cloths or mattress insulation. 7kg per capita. Questionnaire on Environment Statistics (waste section) – indicators 11. 10/10/19 - Elon launches textile recycling program. SMART TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY FOR SMARTER LIVING. What textiles and small electricals can be recycled kerbside? Melton Borough Council Bins, recycling and rubbish information RSS feed. Show all statistics (5) Plastic disposal Global volume of microfibers in textiles and environmental losses by region 2018. 46 EDT Last modified on Sat 16 Mar 2019 23. In NYC, for example, the amount of commercial textile waste is 40 times larger than consumer textile waste. 2 Second to oil, the clothing and textile industry is the largest polluter in the world. Fashion companies. No copy paste is allowed and we will check plagiarism to confirm. This paper was jointly prepared by the World Bank Group and Global Development Solutions for the Ministry of Industrialization and Enterprise Development. The second chart, a pie chart, moves the conversation from a long term, fifty year recycling perspective to a short term, one year recycling perspective. Made to Not Last. 75 kilograms) of clothing per year. The sector is becoming more resource efficient, as we discussed in Chapter two, but it still operates on a linear model of 'make, use, dispose'. While we recycle around 44% of our waste in England, some of our neighbours are doing better, with Wales recycling 57%. 7kg in Germany, 16kg in Denmark, 14. 15 December 2015 New UK waste figures published. 5) 95% of textiles can be recycled. IFAI will host its first ever Women in Textiles Summit on March 6-8, 2019, at the Hyatt Regency Savannah in Savannah, Ga. Recycling Rate Reports. We appreciate all our wonderful Keynote Speakers, Speakers, Conference Attendees, Students, Media Partners, Associations, Sponsors and Exhibitors for making “9th World Convention on Recycling and Waste Management during October 22-23, 2018 Osaka, Japan Successful. Textile recycling is about looking at how individual components in an old garment can be reused. Widely viewed as a resource, these materials offer great potential for recycling and a real revenue generation opportunity for local authorities and waste management companies. 90 (Including monaural hearing loss) 1st Quarter of 2019. Bureau of the Census. It’s a vast industry, but a high percentage of these garments end up as waste, as the garments are…. BETR exports your discarded clothing and shoes to destinations worldwide where the need for such items is great. Credit: MeWa. The event focused on delivering circularity in the textiles sector. Municipal waste is defined as waste collected and treated by or for municipalities. Check out IDEM’s Recycling Activity Reports which detail state recycling rates from year to year here. In fact, approximately 93% of all textile waste diverted to recycling is successfully reclaimed with about. The recycling process often damages and shortens textile fibres, reducing the number of viable uses for recycled textiles. The Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) is the only global recycling industry federation representing around 800 companies and 35 affiliated national recycling associations from 70 different countries. Recycling textiles. Fashion is finally waking up to sustainability - but the lexicon. May 22, 2019. 5 billion pounds of postconsumer textile waste (which includes anything made of fabric) is thus collected and prevented from entering directly into the waste stream. According to a news release from NERC, each of the winners was selected for its “high level of environmental achievement that supports NERC’s mission. make garments only from discarded and excess textiles At a time when our waste and our environmental impact is firmly under the. Recycling textiles. 34%;Exports of $291. The European textile industry has to waste less and recycle more after being highlighted as a key sector by the European Commission in its industrial strategy for a transition to a circular economy. Therefore, it is important that we Reuse and Recycle. UK Manufacturing Statistics Despite the decline since the 1970s, when manufacturing contributed 25% of UK GDP, the UK is currently the ninth largest manufacturing nation in the world. The organic cotton industry alone is looking at a 40% annual growth. 2019 will be marked as a significant year for the Textiles & Apparel industry. Over recent years the industry has come under the microscope, Companies 'failing to disclose environmental impacts' Friday, 21 February 2020. Improve your recycling efforts by learning some recycling etiquette rules and check out which type of collection is best and why different areas recycle and collect in different ways. While the EPA estimates that the textile recycling industry recycles approximately 3. A Practical Guide to Fibre Science Preview. Health & Wellness (10) Apply Health & Wellness filter Wool & the Environment (10) Apply Wool & the Environment filter Wool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) (5) Apply Wool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) filter. Reusing rubber, leather, and textiles in new products D. 23rd September 2019 – 8:30am to 29th September 2019 – 8:30am. This study presents the valorization of cotton waste from the textile industry for the development of sustainable and cost-competitive biopolymer composites. On January 1, 2017, China stopped accepting used plastic for recycling. And although they’re often camouflaged fairly well, the negative issues that accompany landfills remain. WRAP tell us we landfill 1. In Fabric Recycling Process all garments are sorted by and graded as natural, synthetic and blended fabrics. And companies such as FabScrap, a textile reuse and recycling resource, aim to mitigate the issue of waste by streamlining material recycling processes for New York City-based businesses. It includes data on: 1. Discarded textiles and clothing are in strong demand from markets across the world for reuse and recycling. Within this figure, EPA estimated that the recycling rate for textiles in clothing and footwear was 14. From 2017-2019, BPS Sustainability distributed new recycling equipment to BPS schools: 211 curbside recycling carts, 228 recycling barrels, and 4,154 classroom recycling bins across 102 schools. This industry includes auto wreckers engaged in dismantling automobiles for scrap. Weather and equipment breakdowns may affect your pickup date. Statement of Accounts 2018 – 2019. (October 2019) The three chasing arrows of the international recycling logo Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. 1 million tons of textiles are thrown away every year. 4 pounds of solid waste every. … production and consumption of water based on Water Services Corporation data. Of the 2,400 substances used in clothing manufacturing, researchers found that approximately 30% of the identified substances posed a risk to human health. Here's a Look at the Top Countries Exporting to the United States. Rationale Justification for indicator selection. Jane Milburn of Textile Beat has been awarded a 2019 Churchill Fellowship to investigate ways that hands-on upcycling actions can reduce textile waste and enhance wellbeing. Get this from a library! 1982 census of manufactures. plastic as much as possible. measuring recycling in the state of michigan: 2014 recycling rate commissioned by the michigan department of environmental quality prepared by: 416 longshore drive ann arbor, mi 48105 734. While the U. 35 million tons of recycled glass annually, which is remelted and repurposed for use in the production of new containers and fiberglass products. According to NEA statistics, Singapore generated 156,700 tonnes of textile and leather waste in 2015. Statement of Accounts 2018 – 2019. textile trade to supplement ERS monthly estimates and provide background data to support market analysis and research on the U. New residents do not need to set up service - simply place your blue recycling cart out for collection by 6. Wool Policy Report. Recycling and Waste Reduction. Key Statistics Employment in Garment Industry: About 60 million1 to 75 million2 people are employed in the textile, clothing and footwear sector worldwide (2014). Country programming tender — Morocco - Country Partnership Framework 2019-2024 — for Morocco presented by World Bank USA (HQ) (goods, works, consulting services, non-consulting services), in Rural Development, Civil Society & NGOs, Culture, Education, Energy, Environment & NRM, Food Security, Gender, Health, Humanitarian Aid & Emergency, Industry, Commerce & Services, Labour Market. For information on HSIC Version 2. In addition to that by discussing LCA, it is specifically reported as to how much environmental effect can be minimized by using recycled textiles. 2019 will be marked as a significant year for the Textiles & Apparel industry. Calendar of events. The consumption of textiles produces a lot of waste that could be recycled. Canadians on average purchase 70 new articles of clothing a year and. generated roughly 5 billion pounds of textile waste in the public waste stream. Southern Ave. ( Elle MacArthur Foundation 2017 ). For landed property estates, one recycling bin is provided for each house with one or two collection per week. European heat pump sales grew by 12. Conference Series LLC LTD takes a great pride in announcing the commemoration of 9th World Convention on Waste Recycling and Reuse which was held in Singapore, during March 11, 12 2019. It includes data on: 1. EDGE Fast Fact | Non-Biodegradable Clothes Take 20 to 200 Years to Biodegrade Non-biodegradable clothes are manufactured synthetic textiles including polyester, spandex, nylon, and rayon[*]. Modern landfill sites have gas controls (although some gas still escapes to the atmosphere). January 22, 2019 February 18, 2019 Befter19 Light audio, gallery, internet research, interview Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Some of the main factors that contribute to this. Webinar: 2019 Market Forecast ISRI Chief Economist & Director of Commodities Joe Pickard, along with ISRI Research Analyst Bernie Lee discuss the market forecast for 2019 covering each of the major commodities. textile recycling industry consists of about 2,000 companies, most of which are family-owned. … production and consumption of water based on Water Services Corporation data. Here are 7 brands from around the world that are tackling waste in exciting and innovative ways…. Everyone wears clothing and other textile products such as shoes, bags, hats,and glasses etc. Packaging is used to contain and protect foods and goods as they are transported and presented on shop shelves. 12 billion tons of waste. Fashion infographic & data visualisation. Solid Waste Management Market size valued at over USD 1 trillion in 2019 and the annual capacity is anticipated to exceed 28 billion tons by 2026. make garments only from discarded and excess textiles At a time when our waste and our environmental impact is firmly under the. Diagnosis, Strategy and Action Plan. This study presents the valorization of cotton waste from the textile industry for the development of sustainable and cost-competitive biopolymer composites. The explosive growth of this industry has alarmed many around the world about the state of recycling systems and a growing global movement to ensure that plastics are handled in an environmentally responsible manner. Textile waste presents a serious environmental problem with only a small fraction of products from the fashion industry collected and re-used or recycled. Cotton, polyester or spandex are ideal for textile recycling. generated roughly 5 billion pounds of textile waste in the public waste stream. Waste management is a critical issue that may be caused by human interaction with the environment. But, as Tamsin Blanchard argues, we all have our part to play in making fashion truly circular. This paper was jointly prepared by the World Bank Group and Global Development Solutions for the Ministry of Industrialization and Enterprise Development. We could fill 103,000 double-decker buses with the amount of wastepaper sent to landfills each year. 0, please refer to the Census and Statistics Department. Waste output by the construction sector was higher than in any other sector in 2016: half of the total waste production was on account of this sector. Textile Waste Facts Dallas 2019-07-26T19:30:34-07:00 Ragfinery is a nonprofit training business and textile reuse center. 10 Sacks and bags, of a kind used for the packing of goods. The Basics of Clothing and Textile Recycling. You will find a number of activities that can be carried out at school or at home. SUSTAIN YOUR STYLE informs fashion consumers about the current environmental and social issues of the industry and provides alternative solutions without compromising on style. Using industrial symbiosis, it aims to produce secondary raw materials from unwearable textile waste. 00 billion by 2021 from US$ 22. the facts about textile waste infographic. Infinited Fiber harnesses recycled fibres for reuse and makes new raw materials for textile products from them. 3% of waste products, were recovered in 2013. Fortum and Spinnova Oy, a developer of sustainable textile fibre, have entered into a partnership to produce fibre from agro residues and woody biomass. The OECD statistics for 'household' waste ranged between 190 and 440 kg/person in the early 1990s, with a midpoint of 260 kg/person, while 'total municipal' waste ranged between 310 and 690 kg/person, with a midpoint of 400 kg/person (OECD, 1995). Plastics Scrap. From revamped supply chains to recycling jeans and rethinking dyes, here’s what we discovered. Municipal waste is defined as waste collected and treated by or for municipalities. Textile Recycling is a complicated process and items go through a series of sorting channels. Mobilizing Support for the U. gov Contact Us info. Key facts & figures on textile consumption and waste. Here’s a look at the waste statistics in Singapore over 12 years from 2003 to 2014. Recycle: Garments and textiles that are not suitable for reuse or rewear. Key facts & figures on fashion and sustainability. See you at our Concept Store, Yrjönkatu 34, 00100 Helsinki. Conversely, charity shop textile prices have consistently improved this year, reaching £333 per tonne in July 2019. "Eighty billion pieces of clothing are consumed globally every year. Please Note: This information represents WRAP’s best understanding of the kerbside recycling and residual waste collection schemes offered by UK local authorities. This is a free service for all who want the convenience of recycling their unwanted or old clothes, toys, shoes, accessories and household liners. 5 billion pounds of USE-ABLE textiles thrown away each year (70 pounds per American), there is a lot of waste that can be prevented. 7 billion! If you count one number a second without stopping until you reach a billion, you’d be counting for 31 years, 259 days, 1 hours, 46 minutes, and 40 seconds. The Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) is the only global recycling industry federation representing around 800 companies and 35 affiliated national recycling associations from 70 different countries. It has been observed the last Wednesday in April since 2019. Pro Europe - Participation Costs Overview 2019 Packaging materials on a biological basis Definition of packaging materials on a biological basis: Packaging materials on a biological basis (also ”biogenic packaging materials”, ”biogenic packaging”,. Worn out clothes and textiles get a new lease of life: post-consumer textile waste is used for the new Post Waste collection by Pure Waste. According to the Ellen Macarthur Foundation report, A New Textiles Economy, clothing production across the globe has doubled in the past 15 years, which it attributes to. That number shot up considerable in recent years, in 2014 post-consumer textile waste was 32. Environmental Protection Department,content page,highlights,events and activities,press releases,Environmental Statistics. Key facts & figures on textile consumption and waste. Title: Hong Kong 2018 Waste Statistics - At a glance Author: Environmental Protection Department Created Date: 11/19/2019 10:47:54 AM. Fashion Takes Action ( FTA) is a non-profit organization established in 2007 to advance sustainability in the fashion industry through education, awareness and collaboration. In Fabric Recycling Process all garments are sorted by and graded as natural, synthetic and blended fabrics. Municipal waste is defined as waste collected and treated by or for municipalities. Ozonation was used in this two-part study as a purification method for industrial textile wastewater polluted by low-molecular-weight salts (LMWS). The idea of recycling isn’t something new, historical evidence shows that humans have been recycling various materials for thousands of years. It has a high importance in terms of its environmental impact, since it consumes considerably high amounts of processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water in large amounts. 0 has commenced in March 2019. Nationally, Americans generate 25 billion pounds of textile waste every year, or about 82 pounds per person, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. History Our mission Meet the team. The market launch of the nightwear and bed linen collections manufactured in line with C2C principles now marks the successful completion of the project. Statistics play a vital role for all industries. In 2015, the fast fashion industry created 92 million tons of. 10/2/19- Why Your Used Shirts Are Destined for the Dump and Not the Recycling Center. Here are eight essential facts. This notice. Geneva, 10 May 2019 - Decisions on plastic waste have been reached today in Geneva, as approximately 180 governments adopted a raft of decisions aimed at protecting human health and the environment from the harmful effects of hazardous chemicals and waste. Data published here in December 2019; source Defra statistics. We unpacked the statistics to find out the lowdown on GCSE exams and results. The global environmental injustice of fast fashion, Environmental Health (2018). Information on Bins, recycling and rubbish. It is an important milestone towards the future of global textile recycling systems necessary to enable circularity for fashion and textiles. In 2009 alone, the Environmental Protection Agency reports, municipal solid waste. 4 billion pounds; Over 70% of the world's population uses second hand clothes. Recycling is an economic development tool as well as an environmental tool. Textile Industry in the 21st Century: The National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) is a unique association representing the entire spectrum of the textile industry. Only 13% of electronic waste is disposed and recycled properly. meter plot in Fujairah Free Zone, United Arab Emirates. 4 million tonnes of material per year. Evrnu purifies cotton garment waste, converts it to a pulp, and extrudes it as a pristine new fiber for the creation of premium textiles. municipal solid waste landfills 1990 to 2017 U. The sector is becoming more resource efficient, as we discussed in Chapter two, but it still operates on a linear model of 'make, use, dispose'. In addition, batch and very large query support is still. FabricLink is The Textile Resource for education on fabrics, apparel, home furnishings, fabric care, fabric stain removal, fashion trends, performance fabrics, technical fabrics, and smart fabrics. 2019 Recycling Tonnage Report; NJDEP's Recycling Page; NJDEP's Electronic Waste Website; Proof of Somerset County residency is required (current driver's license, valid lease, tax bill or any other bill with a Somerset County address) for Household Hazardous Waste, Electronic Waste, Tire, and First Saturday of the Month drop-off events. Supply, Trade, Demand. The German Government and the “climate cabinet” are due to announce key decisions on a package of measures required to implement the Climate Action Plan 2050 the same day. The textile reclamation industry employs 85 times more workers than do landfills and incinerators on a per-ton basis. A Practical Guide to Fibre Science Preview. Waste management statistics and overall recycling measures Key Highlights. 35% of microplastics released into the world's oceans are from synthetic textiles. 3% rise in the overall recycling rate to 45. Monthly Report of Current Production Statistics (February 2020) 2020. Quick stitch fabric facts: The amount of textile waste has doubled over the last two decades. Resources Fashion Facts, Resources & Campaigns Resources A place for many useful resources. What is the clothing of the future: SMART wearables & e-textiles - Duration: 3:30. India's textile and apparel exports stood at US$ 38. Compounding the overall growth in disposal of textile and apparel waste is an unwavering reuse and recycling rate. Across the board, in 2018/19 England saw a 0. The publication reaches highly-qualified decision-makers who have control over many or all aspects of company/ organisation budgets, including owners, managers and other professionals. DOMAIN CHANGE & some statistics. The amount of discarded clothing tossed into landfills is projected to reach 35. New residents do not need to set up service - simply place your blue recycling cart out for collection by 6. A man uses his mobile phone as he walks amid smog in Tianjin, China after the city issued a yellow alert for air. Webinar: 2019 Market Forecast ISRI Chief Economist & Director of Commodities Joe Pickard, along with ISRI Research Analyst Bernie Lee discuss the market forecast for 2019 covering each of the major commodities. Wearable electronics is a rapidly growing field that recently started to introduce successful commercial products into the consumer electronics market. Of the 2,400 substances used in clothing manufacturing, researchers found that approximately 30% of the identified substances posed a risk to human health. generated roughly 5 billion pounds of textile waste in the public waste stream. Wearable electronics is a rapidly growing field that recently started to introduce successful commercial products into the consumer electronics market. Christina Stella From Harvest Public Media. A few statistics to put it into perspective: Over 2,000 landfills are currently open (and cleverly disguised) in the US alone. Lenzing - Just ahead of the "Day of Forests" on March 21, which the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) introduced in the 1970s in response to global deforestation, the Lenzing Group presents its Sustainability Report 2019. How much waste does the fashion industry actually produce? An average consumer throws away 70 pounds (31. … waste collections from municipal, bring-in and civic amenity sites. Hopefully, these facts about the fast fashion industry that will inspire you to embrace the slow and sustainable fashion movement. Find recycling information and activities for kids. 3, 2019; FASHIONOPOLIS The (about 85 percent of textile waste in the United States goes to landfills or is incinerated), it will not decay. Disposed of at landfills at a rate of 1. 1 Textile collected for reuse and recycling has grown substantially in the last five years, reaching 523,000 tonnes in 2008 compared to 324,000 tonnes in 2003. LMWS acts only as a remediation factor and remains in the dyeing effluents constitute brine. Although pillow stuffing and fabric scraps can be recycled, these statistics typically apply to locals that can generate thousands of pounds of materials at a time, all with consistent size and material makeup. 0, please refer to the Census and Statistics Department. Solid Waste Management Market size valued at over USD 1 trillion in 2019 and the annual capacity is anticipated to exceed 28 billion tons by 2026. 35% of microplastics released into the world's oceans are from synthetic textiles. China publishes new specification for copper, brass and aluminium scrap products 20 January 2020. The War on Waste calculated that 6000 kilograms of clothing is dumped in landfill every 10 minutes – showing a giant pile of waste to demonstrate the impact of fashion waste. It's gotten so bad that it's estimated that the average American throws away 65 pounds of textiles every year and that nearly 48% of this is perfectly reusable. The textile problem can be divided into three categories: pollution, ethics and waste. Biodegradable municipal waste sent to landfill - new 2018 data 3. From revamped supply chains to recycling jeans and rethinking dyes, here’s what we discovered. Find recycling information and activities for kids. The latest data has statistics from October and November 2019, which show that the Netherlands remains the biggest market with large volumes also going to Sweden, Germany and Denmark. 0, please refer to the Census and Statistics Department. We continue to provide our essential services to ensure the safe and proper management of California’s nonhazardous solid waste. enya's textile and apparel sector has the potential to play a key role in anchoring the country's deeper movement into middle income status and in serving as a source of gainful employment for its fast growing, young population. Canadians on average purchase 70 new articles of clothing a year and. Are you involved with. 3% from 2020 to 2027 owing to the increased demand for apparels, especially in developing countries such as China, India, Mexico, and Bangladesh. A group of researchers are trying to combat plastic waste by turning it into clean fuel through new chemical techniques. Webinar #3: State and Municipal Views on Textile Waste in the U. 3 million tons of textiles were recycled, thus avoiding disposal. 3, 2019; FASHIONOPOLIS The (about 85 percent of textile waste in the United States goes to landfills or is incinerated), it will not decay. 2019 Solid Waste, Recycling, Bulk & Brush, Water Conservation and more. " [The fashion industry] is the. Total landfilled textile waste per person in the European Union (EU) 2016, by country The most important statistics Sustainable supply chains: consumer perceptions on fashion brands Europe 2018. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), will join executives of a leading consumer brand and plastics producers and manufacturers as speakers on sustainability at the Global Plastic Summit (GPS) 2019. From revamped supply chains to recycling jeans and rethinking dyes, here’s what we discovered. 5 billion pounds of USE-ABLE textiles thrown away each year (70 pounds per American), there is a lot of waste that can be prevented. 41% of the Philippine pineapple industry is dedicated to total net food and is treated as a disposable product. In Canada alone, each person creates about 7 kilograms of textile waste that fills our landfills. Statistics play a vital role for all industries. Textile recycling is the process of recovering fiber, yarn or fabric and reprocessing the textile material into useful products. While statistics for recycling are collected regularly, it often takes time for the most current numbers to be processed and assimilated for public consumption. Key sustainability trends for 2019: what consumers expect from fashion brands. Over the past decade, the diversion rate of textiles remained stagnant at 15-16% according to the EPA, meaning that about 84% of textile waste is consistently disposed. 1% reversing a similar fall in the previous period (see letsrecycle. While the EPA estimates that the textile recycling industry recycles approximately 3. 1 million tonnes in 2016 (as it includes also waste collected from parks etc). The links below correspond to the various sections in the Table of Contents for the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Find recycling information and activities for kids. The Legislature also established. This site is for employers and those who want some basic information on what they must do to make sure their businesses comply with health and safety law. CPIA Presents Donation to The War Amps. According to the Council for Textile Recycling, the U. Become a Member. Global Recycling Foundation announces #RecyclingHeroes as its theme for 2020. New fiber, yarn, and recycling facilities are among the most of the newly open to convert textile and other waste to new textile uses and resins. 46 EDT Last modified on Sat 16 Mar 2019 23. 5% of the land crop , uses 16% of pesticides and is the fourth most GMO (genetically modified) crop produced in the world. Bank holiday collection dates. Recycling Congress 2020 mainly focus on two key topics viz. We appreciate all our wonderful Keynote Speakers, Speakers, Conference Attendees, Students, Media Partners, Associations, Sponsors and Exhibitors for making “9th World Convention on Recycling and Waste Management during October 22-23, 2018 Osaka, Japan Successful. Try and do your bit for the environment by taking cloth bags with you to the supermarket or using a 'bag for life. Textiles in this category will be converted into recycled fibres and non-woven fabric. 5% in volume terms in the first quarter of 2019, according to new data from the country's National Institute of Statistics. 8%) were recycled. 52% in terms of mass, from 93,300 tonnes in 2008 to 150,700 tonnes in 2016 (NEA, last updated 2016) but Singapore's textile waste recycling rate remains stagnant at a low rate of 10% since 2003. May 22, 2019. In terms of clothing textiles, very little is lost as waste to landfill – so long as the resource enters the charitable reuse and recycling sector system. The production of raw materials is responsible for a large share of the environmental impact of the textile and clothing industry, not leastfrom growing crops for natural fibres. 5kg in Italy, 14kg in the Netherlands and 12. January 22, 2019 February 18, 2019 Befter19 Light audio, gallery, internet research, interview Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Commission reviews implementation of EU waste rules, proposes actions to help 14 Member States meet recycling targets. Fast fashion: Inside the fight to end the silence on waste. The potential is there for Canada as well. We have changed the domain save-energy. The BYBORRE approach is always a layered one, starting with the design, materials and engineering of their multi-layered fabrics. These charities send your old shoes to developing nations to provide less fortunate people with footwear. 5 million tons recycled. It remains one of the most significant sectors of the manufacturing industry and ranks among the top markets in the world by export value: $23 billion in 2018. A growing population means a growing need for proper waste management. 3% from 2020 to 2027 owing to the increased demand for apparels, especially in developing countries such as China, India, Mexico, and Bangladesh. --IKATSI: The growth of the national textile industry is still hampered by floods of imports, Indonesia needs a clothing security law. Then, in 1974, Oxfam became the first national charity to develop its own facility for recycling and reusing clothes that never sends clothes to landfill. The textile industry consumes a substantial amount of water in its manufacturing processes used mainly in the dyeing and finishing operations of the plants. 0 has commenced in March 2019. 1 in 6 people in the world works in a fashion related job, and 80. Where the gas is captured it can be burnt to power generators to produce electricity. That's enough to fill 459 Olympic-size swimming pools. The stimuli can be thermal, mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, etc. Contributions to emission reductions of plastic recycling and reuse and alternative feedstocks - Chart and data by the International Energy Agency. 9th round sent out in September 2018 (waste and water statistics) • About 172 member states and areas in 5 languages • Complemented by the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on the State of the Environment - their member states • Waste statistics R1: Generation of Waste by Source. Municipal Solid Waste stream is recycled. In Europe, energy recovery is the most used way to dispose of plastic waste, followed by landfill. 's March 2019 issue. Preliminary report. The Council for Textile Recycling says that the United States generates an average of 25 billion pounds of textiles a year in the form of clothing, shoes, accessories and more, which comes out to. (aired September 6, 2017) Webinar #2: How US Textile Recovery Works & Emerging Innovation in Sortation Technologies. Textile dyeing is the world's second-largest polluter of water, since the water leftover from the dyeing process is often dumped into ditches, streams, or rivers. 23 million tonnes of solid waste was generated, of which 4. 923 likes · 24 talking about this · 22 were here. | World crude steel production for the 64 countries reporting to the World Steel Association (Worldsteel) was 147. In the United States an estimated 1. Clothing and textile waste. The phone number is 954-974-7500. Year Towards Zero Waste Year Towards Zero Waste. In 2019, landfill tax charges are £88. Upcycling of waste textiles into regenerated cellulose fibres: impact of pretreatments Ma, Yibo, Rosson, Lucas, Wang, Xungai and Byrne, Nolene 2019, Upcycling of waste textiles into regenerated cellulose fibres: impact of pretreatments, Journal of the textile institute, pp. 2019: £ per tonne. Diagnosis, Strategy and Action Plan. 8% CAGR over the period between 2019 and 2027, rising from a valuation of US$34 Bn in 2019 to a revenue opportunity of US$60 Bn by 2027. More and more clothing companies are transforming their business models and improving their supply chains to reduce overall environmental impacts, improve social conditions in factories, etc. Sat 29 Jul 2017 19. Facts Learn about the impacts of Fashion Glossary Sustainable fashion terms and definitions Take Action Deepen your Awareness Facts Learn about the impacts of Fashion Glossary Sustainable fashion term. Learn how to reduce your waste at home, work, school, and play. July 25, 2019 Our clothes provide comfort, protection, an expression of individuality, and jobs, with more than 300 million people working along the clothing industry value chain. The industry is always moving forward. The Looptworks founders looked at this process and decided make a. Every second, a whole garbage truck full of textiles is thrown out. Stay up to date with our news, market information, legislative updates and events. Textile Waste Facts; Contact; Get Involved. 2023 2019 2024 Source: European Bioplastics, nova-Institute (2018). Industry Trends. In 2013, the US Environmental Protection Agency estimated that 2. Ragfinery opened in April 2014 as the second "jobs from waste" business of ReUse Works. Key Statistics Employment in Garment Industry: About 60 million1 to 75 million2 people are employed in the textile, clothing and footwear sector worldwide (2014). Plastic recycling has become an increasingly important sector of recycling, but it would be hard to declare it a great success story from an environmental perspective. Our services are shaped to fit your needs.